Thursday, December 31, 2009

Glossary Index




A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .


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Sunday, December 27, 2009

A

Askeburner .

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Askeburner

Askeburner - this term probably referred to a charcoal burner. Because wood burns at too low a temperature for the smelting of iron, charcoal was a necessary fuel.

Saturday, December 26, 2009

B

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Friday, December 25, 2009

C

Chaloner . Coucher (papermaking) . CurrierCurtilage .


A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Chaloner

Chaloner — a maker or seller of blankets. The word is derived from the Middle English "chaloun", meaning a blanket or coverlet for a bed. The agent suffix "-er" signifies one who does or works with.

Surnames derived from this profession include: Challoner, Challen(d)er, Challenor, Challiner, Chaloner, Channer and Chawner.

Coucher

Vatman, coucher, layer at work in papermaking
PapermakingThe coucher (back turned in image) inverted the pulp-filled mould handed to him by the vatman (at left in image), and pressed it with a rocking motion against a damp woolen felt.

The action transferred the fresh sheet of sodden paper, smooth and unwrinkled, to the surface of the felt.

The coucher handed the empty mould back to the vatman, receiving another mould and sheet.

Having covered the first sheet of paper with a another damp felt, he rolled the second sheet off the mould. The routine built up a repeated sandwich, or “post,” of fresh sheets interleaved with felts.

Comprehensive online article on European papermaking techniques from 1300 to 1800.

Currier

Currierleather processing specialist.

After leather has been tanned, the currier dresses, finishes and colours the tanned hide to make it strong, flexible and waterproof. The leather is stretched and burnished to produce a uniform thickness and suppleness. Dyeing and other chemical finishes give the leather its desired colour. After currying, the leather is then ready to pass to the fashioning trades such as saddlery, bridlery, shoe-making, and glove-making.

Curtilage

Curtilage – legal term. Etymology: The word derives from Middle English: courtelage. From Old French: cortillage or cortil ("court, yard, garden") plus diminutive suffix -age.

In law, the curtilage of a house or dwelling is the land immediately surrounding it, including any closely associated buildings and structures, but excluding any associated "open fields beyond". Curtilage also excluded closely associated buildings, structures, or divisions that contain separate intimate activities. Thus, though open to interpretation because not defined in the deed, cartilage is intended to delineate the boundary within which a home owner can have a reasonable expectation of privacy.

In urban properties, the location of the curtilage may be evident from the position of fences, wall and similar; within larger properties it may be a matter of some legal debate as to where the private area ends and the 'open fields' start.

Thursday, December 24, 2009

D

dogswain & hopharlot : Doublet (gipon phase) .

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

dogswain & hopharlot

Dogswain and Hopharlot

Dagswain: A coarse woollen fabric made of daglocks. (A dirty or clotted lock of wool on a sheep.) [here & here]
"In their youth they lay upon hard straw pallets covered only with a sheet, and mayhap a dogswain coverlet over them, and a good round log for pillow. If in seven years after marriage a man could buy a mattress and a sack of chaff to rest his head on, he thought himself as well lodged as a lord. Pillows were thought meet only for sick women."
From: Charles Dudley Warner - For Whom Shakespeare Wrote (here)
Old name for a coarse coverlet. Etymology: corrupt form of hap-harlot from the verb hap, meaning to wrap or cover.

"...and we ourselves have lien full oft upon straw pallets, covered onelie with a sheet, under coverlets made of dagswain or hopharlots (I use their own termes), and a good round log under their heads in steed of a bolster, or pillow. If it were so that our fathers or the good man of the house, had within seven years after his mariage purchased a mattress or flockebed, and thereto a sacke of chaffe to resh his head upon, he though himself to be as well lodged as the lord of the town, that peradventure laye seldome in a bed of downe or whole feathers; so well were they contended, and with such base kind of furniture..."
From: William Harrison (1534 - 1593) in "A Description of England, or a briefe rehearsal of the nature and qualities of the people of England and such comitatus as are to be found in the same" (here)

Wednesday, December 23, 2009

E

Enfoffment . Escheat . Escheator .

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Escheat Escheator Enfeoffoment

Escheat is a common law doctrine by which the property of a person who dies without heirs is transferred to the crown or state, ensuring that property is not left without recognized ownership.

In feudal England, escheat applied when the tenant-in-chief (vassal-in-chief) of a fee, or "fief" (an ownership of rights over an estate in land, rather than ownership of the land itself):
a)     died without an heir, or
b)     was convicted of a felony.

In the first case, the fee reverted permanently to the King's demesne, becoming a mere tenantless plot of land. However, enfeoffment to another of the king's followers converted the property back to a fee.

Enfeoffment, or feoffment the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service. In English law, feoffment conferred to the new holder the right to sell the land or property or to pass it on to his heirs as an inheritance. Thus, enfeoffment involved the total relinquishment and transfer of all rights of ownership of an estate in land from one individual to another. In feudal England a feoffment could only be made of a fee (or "fief"), the only true owner of which was the monarch under his allodial title (beginning with William the Conqueror the monarch had no overlord, and thus, by virtue of occupancy and defense, owned the land).
  
When the deceased had been subinfeudated by a tenant-in-chief, the fee reverted temporarily to the crown for one year and one day by right of primer seisin after which it escheated to the over-lord (grantor of the enfeoffment). Escheat provided a source of revenue to the monarchy after the time of Henry III (1207-1272).

Beginning in the 12th century, the Crown appointed escheators to manage escheats and report to the Exchequer. By mid-14th century, one escheator was appointed per county.


“Upon the death of a tenant-in-chief, the escheator would be instructed by a writ of diem clausit extremum ("he has closed his last day", i.e. he is dead) issued by the king's chancery, to empanel a jury to hold an "inquisition post mortem" to ascertain who the legal heir was, if any, and what was the extent of the land held. Thus it would be revealed whether the king had any rights to the land. It was also important for the king to know who the heir was, and to assess his personal qualities, since he would thenceforth form a constituent part of the royal army, if he held under military tenure. If there was any doubt, the escheator would seize the land and refer the case to the king's court where it would be settled, ensuring that not one day's revenue would be lost. This would be a source of concern with land-holders when there were delays from the court.” [source]

Tuesday, December 22, 2009

F

Farrier . Fellmonger .


A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Farrier

As the video shows, farriers were blacksmiths who fashioned and fitted horseshoes.

Fellmonger

Fellmonger = dealer in animal hides or skins, especially sheepskins, who prepared the skins for sale. Skinned pelts were trimmed, washed, dipped in lime pits, and then the hair, fur, or skin-wool (distinct from shorn fleece-wool) were removed. At the tannery they were often split into three parts: parchment, leather; chamois leather.

Long description of associated processes here.
Hide preparation here.

Monday, December 21, 2009

G

Gilda Mercatoria . Gilda Mercatorum . GiponGuild Merchant .

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Gipon

Gipon: During the 14th century, the gipon (or jupon) was first worn as a snug, knee-length, padded tunic beneath armour. Later, it was adapted to civilian use, and its length was shortened to mid-thigh. It was replaced by the doublet in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was sometimes called the pourpoint.

Origin:
1350–1400; ME jopo ( u ) n

Guild Merchant

Guild Merchant: merchant guild, "Gilda Mercatoria" or "Gilda Mercatorum : licences granted to cities and towns by the king. In return, the guild paid an annual fee to the crown. Membership was restricted to freemen, and required certain qualifications: completion of formal apprenticeship; inheritance from close relative; and/or payment of initiation fee. Guild membership conferred privileges such as reduced competition and preferential access to commodities.



Sunday, December 20, 2009

H

Hop-harlot and dogswain .

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Hop-harlot and dogswain

Hop-harlot and dogswain

Old name for a coarse coverlet. Etymology: corrupt form of hap-harlot from the verb hap, meaning to wrap or cover.

"...and we ourselves have lien full oft upon straw pallets, covered onelie with a sheet, under coverlets made of dagswain or hopharlots (I use their own termes), and a good round log under their heads in steed of a bolster, or pillow. If it were so that our fathers or the good man of the house, had within seven years after his mariage purchased a mattress or flockebed, and thereto a sacke of chaffe to resh his head upon, he though himself to be as well lodged as the lord of the town, that peradventure laye seldome in a bed of downe or whole feathers; so well were they contended, and with such base kind of furniture..."
From: William Harrison (1534 - 1593) in "A Description of England, or a briefe rehearsal of the nature and qualities of the people of England and such comitatus as are to be found in the same" (here)
Dagswain: A coarse woollen fabric made of daglocks. (A dirty or clotted lock of wool on a sheep.) [here & here]
In their youth they lay upon hard straw pallets covered only with a sheet, and mayhap a dogswain coverlet over them, and a good round log for pillow. If in seven years after marriage a man could buy a mattress and a sack of chaff to rest his head on, he thought himself as well lodged as a lord. Pillows were thought meet only for sick women.
From: Charles Dudley Warner - For Whom Shakespeare Wrote (here)

Saturday, December 19, 2009

I

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Friday, December 18, 2009

J

Jupon .


A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Thursday, December 17, 2009

K

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Wednesday, December 16, 2009

L

Leather trades : currier . fellmongertanner . tanning . tawyer . whittawer .

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Layer

Vatman, coucher, layer at work in papermaking
Papermaking : The layer had the skill-demanding task of separating the sheets of damp woolen felt from the wet sheets of paper rolled onto the felt by the coucher. The layer stacked the sheets of paper, handing the felts back to the coucher.

Vatman, coucher, and layer worked in unison.





Comprehensive online article on European papermaking techniques from 1300 to 1800.

Lye

During the Middle Ages, lye was produced by passing water over wood ash, leaching strong alkali, predominantly potassium carbonate (KOH, "potash") from the material.

Mixed with fats, lye produces soap. Mixed with urine ("chamber lye"), it becomes a more potent bleach. Ashes from the wood of apple and pear were particularly suited to bleaching.


Tuesday, December 15, 2009

M


A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Messuage

Messuage : archaic legal term found in writings of academic historians. The term was used in conveyancing (property transfer) and referred to a dwelling. A grant of "a messuage with the appurtenances" included the house, attached buildings, curtilage, garden, and orchard, together with the close on which the house was built.

Monday, December 14, 2009

N

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Sunday, December 13, 2009

O

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Saturday, December 12, 2009

P

. pill (definition) . Potash AlumPourpoint .

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Potash Alum

Potash alum, a chemical commonly used in medieval processes, is the potassium double sulfate of aluminum: KAl(SO4)2 or dodecahydrate form KAl(SO4)2•12(H2O)

The mineral occurs naturally as encrustations where weathering has oxidized minerals containing sulfides and potassium. Crystals of potash alum can also be manufactured by the processing of alunite (alum rock or alum stone) and alum shale (alum ore or alum schist).

During the late Middle Ages, Genoa and Venice dominated the trade of potash alum from the Middle East and volcanism-related deposits around the Mediterranean Basin.

From medieval to pre-modern times, potash alum was used for a variety of purposes: as a mordant in the dyeing of textiles, and in the manufacture of pigments as a siccative (drying) agent. Amongst its other uses are the tawing of hides, sizing of paper, and manufacture of glue.


Extensive description of potash alum and its use in papermaking here.

Friday, December 11, 2009

Q

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Thursday, December 10, 2009

R

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Wednesday, December 9, 2009

S

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Tuesday, December 8, 2009

T



A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Tanner

Tanner - a craftsman involved in the tanning of animal hides to produce leather. This process converted the hides into a putrefaction-resistant product.

Tawer Tawyer Tawing Whittawer

Tawer, Tawyer, Whittawer - a craftsman who used minerals to cure skins by producing rawhide.

In tawing, the hide was soaked in an aqueous solution containing potash alum and salt. Sometimes egg yolk and flour were added to improve the product. Strictly speaking, not having been tanned, a tawed skin is not leather, and is putrescible when wet.

Monday, December 7, 2009

U

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Sunday, December 6, 2009

V


A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Vatman

Vatman, coucher, layer at work in papermaking
Papermaking: The vatman (on left in image) determined the proper consistency of the diluted stock (fragmented linen rag) in the vat. Into the pulp suspension, he dipped the mould—a rectangular wooden frame covered with a woven brass-wire surface and fitted with an open wooden frame called a deckle. 

After dipping, the vatman lifted the pulp-filled assembly to the surface, and shook it gently (promener) to distribute the pulp evenly and bind the fibers (serrer) as water drained through the mesh.

When the layer of pulp had coalesced on the surface of the mould, the vatman removed the deckle and passed the mould to the coucher (back turned in image). Next, he fit the deckle into an empty mould and repeated the dip, lift, shake action.

Comprehensive online article on European papermaking techniques from 1300 to 1800.

Saturday, December 5, 2009

W

Whittawer .

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Whittawer

Whittawer, Tawer, Tawyer - a craftsman who used minerals to cure skins by producing rawhide.

In tawing, the hide was soaked in an aqueous solution containing potash alum and salt. Sometimes egg yolk and flour were added to improve the product. Strictly speaking, not having been tanned, a tawed skin is not leather, and is putrescible when wet.

Friday, December 4, 2009

X

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Thursday, December 3, 2009

Y

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .

Wednesday, December 2, 2009

Z

A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z .