Land animals: hides and skins, tendons, cartilage, bones, teeth, antlers, and hooves (by-products of butchery and tanning)
Fish: skin, bones, heads, swim-bladders (isinglass, ichtyocolle)
Animal glues such as hide glue are essentially unrefined gelatin, which can also be used as a binding agent in India ink (soot + glue). Gelatin was first used as an external surface sizing for paper in 1337 and continued as a dominant sizing agent of all European papers through the mid-19th century.
Casein-based glues (pdf):
Cheese glue, casein as binder in lime-ash flooring (video), (video in new window).
Egg yolk (tempura), serum albumin from blood
Wheatpaste (gluten proteins)
Gum Arabic is collected from acacia trees, particularly Senegalia senegal.
source of Gum Arabic
Resin (pitch) is an oleo-resin obtained by tapping the resinous sap of pines and other conifers, or by dry distillation (heating) of the wood and roots of pine. Rosin results from the solidification of fresh liquid resin by heating to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components.
Other natural gums are derived from colloids in marine plants, though this source might not have been known in the Middle Ages: algin (brown seaweeds, particularly species of Ascophyllum, Durvillaea, Ecklonia, Laminaria, Lessonia, and Macrocystis)
Making pine resin to attach arrowhead to shaft.
Making Pine Pitch Glue and Cutler’s Resin.
new window: Making Pine Pitch Glue and Cutler’s Resin.
Ray Mears Uses Pine Pitch Glue to attach arrowhead.
new window: Ray Mears Uses Pine Pitch Glue to attach arrowhead.
Playlist: Resins, Tars, Natural Glues - Pine, Spruce, Birch .
Chewing starchy plants to make glue: Ray Mears attaching fletching, Hadza.
Open in new window: Ray Mears attaching fletching, Hadza.
Explanation of Adhesive (between substances) and Cohesive (within substance) Forces .
A History of Fish Glue as an Artist's Material.